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【作业代写】,Argumentative Essay怎么写? 了解议论文结构和格式类型,查看议论文例子

今日世界上有无数争议性话题:全球变暖、性少数群体平权、快速时尚对于环境的影响、个人隐私权等。那么,作为学生我们怎么会说出自己的观点并带来一些变化?从很久以前大学不仅是知识殿堂,也是非常重要的交流平台,因此老师布置各种论文写作的时候,学生有对某话题划出自己立场的机会。英文学术写作形式中,argumentative essay(议论文)就是施展同学们的个人想法最佳方法。但你们知道argumentative essay怎么写?下面Academic Saviour essay代写小编来解释一下议论文结构特点、 常见的议论文题目、argumentative essay格式的类型以及撰写套路,而且提供一篇真正的argumentative essay的范文,以便帮助同学们更好地了解议论文怎么写。

  • Argumentative Essay是什么?
  • 三种Argumentative Essay格式
    • Classical Argument
    • Toulmin Argument
    • Rogerian Argument
  • Argumentative Essay写作技巧的解析
  • Argumentative Essay范文欣赏
  • 如何选择醒目的议论文题目?
  • 可以参考议论文题目的列表
    • 教育
    • 技术
    • 体育
    • 性别问题
    • 心理学
    • 动物
    • 健康
    • 道德问题

Argumentative essay中文译为论证性论文,又可称之为议论文,是一种理论性很强的essay写作的形式。与其他essay种类比起来,argumentative essay的目的是传达作者对某个问题或某件事的立场和个人态度。通过对于论文主题进行评论,作者务必要提出thesis statement (论文陈述)并应用真实可靠论据与推理来证明它。Argumentative essay基本要求包括:

  • 简洁论点 (是你的主张,你的个人态度);
  • 论据恰当 (必须具有实际意义,与主题和你的论点相关);
  • 具有逻辑性的论证。

Argumentative essay其实非常多种多样,每个学子都会找到适合个人写作风格的议论文。比如说,我们可以先提出一个论点,然后以故事论述支撑本论点并对其是非进行分析。也可以以两个不同论点对照开始,采用比较法对于对立的主张确定正确和错误,于是在结论归纳出自己的看法。如果你是英文写作新手的话,我推荐从议论文三主要模型开始练习argumentative essay写作:

起源于亚里士多德辩证理论,本argumentative essay格式的目的是通过他人说服赢得辩论。为了证明自己观点绝对的正确性,小伙伴需要按照下面六个要素进行写作:

  1. 引起读者的注意力。介绍人们关心的疑问,为了你的论点奠定基础;
  2. 论述背景,即为了解决主题制定的辩论我们应该知道哪些事实?
  3. 根据在第一和第二步提供的信息表明自己的观点并指出下文将要讲什么;
  4. 提供论据和论证;
  5. 我们都应该考虑到对方的论据。因此,第五议论文的要素是反驳对方论据,这样做着能避免论点的过度主观性。
  6. 为最重要的信息进行归纳。再次回顾一下让读者接受你论点的论证。

接下来,我以简单英文对话展示议论文的classical argument模型:

  • Lucia! (第一,引起注意力)
  • Stop teasing your sister. She had a tough day at dancing class. (第二,背景)
  • If I hear you gloat about getting a lead role in the play one more time, you are going to be punished. (第三,论点)
  • In the past 20 minutes you have mentioned it three times already. She is crying in her room. She knows that you’ll be Elza in winter play. You are just being mean (第四,论据)
  • I know she never misses a chance to tease you with her straight A on math too, but you have to set a good example for her (第五,反驳对方的论点)
  • If you say one more thing about that winter play, I will put you in timeout. I don’t care if we are in a supermarket and your friends are watching. (第六,归纳和总结)

这种argumentative essay格式最适合学术写作,也不算简单。哲学家Stephen Toulmin提出的论辩框架如下:

  1. 论点:就像我们平时写的主旨句,是我们的观点和立场;
  2. 论据:统计数据、常识和经验观察等被用于支持主张;
  3. 保证:可视为一种理论上的规则,确保论据能够使主张成立;
  4. 保证补强成分:是论点推理规则的补强成分和附加成分;
  5. 限定:限定主张成立的条件;
  6. 例外:指出反例。

让我们看一个简单的Toulmin格式的议论文例子:

  • Lucia, I know that last time you took a shower on Monday. It’s Thursday now.(论据);
  • You need to take a shower. (论点);
  • You are starting to get stinky. Your hair is looking very messy. (保证);
  • Birds will build a nest in your hair if it isn’t clean and brushed. You also will get known as a stinky girl at school. (保证补强成分);
  • I know that Dad always says that you smell like cinnamon and sugar, but you are getting a little ripe. (限定);
  • You are doing great in school and you behave, but you still have to take a shower.(例外)。

美国心理学家Carl Rogers曾今启发了辞修学家创造一种新辩证方式,即首先需要充分了解对方的观点,然后才提出自己的。Rogerian argument必须包含以下几项主要要素:

  1. 介绍所需要解决的问题:
  2. 对于对方观点进行概括,尽量避免语言感情色彩,以此表示对对立看法的尊重;
  3. 承认对方观点的合理性。哪些对立看法的论据你会同意?哪些论据连会与他人分享【作业代写】
  4. 清晰地提出自己的论点;
  5. 陈述所持观点的情景。指出一下,在哪种情况下你的观点是100%正确的,以此表示并承认他人最可能不会总是同意你的立场,反而这可能是与对方达成共识的机会;
  6. 列出你观点所带来的益处。展示对方从接受你的主张如何能够受益,这样你的写作结尾充满着希望和乐观语气。

Rogerian argument简单的例子如下所示:

  • Lucia, you still haven’t finished your homework. (提出所存在的问题);
  • I know that you really want to go out and eat that chocolate ice-cream. (概括对方的论据);
  • If you had all of your homework done, you could go and play as much as you want (承认对方观点合理性);
  • At this moment, I need you to finish your homework. When you are done, you can have some ice-cream. (阐述你的立场);
  • I’ll fill in a bowl with ice-cream and put it in the fridge for you, so you can eat it as soon as you finish. (描述你观点的情景);
  • When you finish your homework, you can go out until bedtime, and you will have good grades in school. (对方能够受到的益处)。

除了argumentative essay格式和结构之外,同学们也不妨掌握一些写作技巧。这些技巧可以归纳为以下三个方面【文章代写】

  • 清晰的论点

要想让读者看得懂一篇argumentative essay并抓住重点,学生一定要使用清晰易懂的论点。论点是论文的核心与基础,论点的提出与位置的放置对一篇essay的写作至关重要。当读者或导师很容易地找到你的论点后,他们往往会顺着你的写作思路继续阅读,对论文的印象与评分也会大大提高。一般来说,论点的位置是在第一段的结尾或者正文段落的开头处。

  • 对立观点的恰当使用(反驳)

相比于一篇只证明自己支持观点与立场的论文,一篇详细介绍支持立场与反驳对立观点的essay往往更有说服力。前者的论文写作比较单一,而后者的论文更加详细与具体。所以留学生在进行论证性论文的写作中,不妨加上对立的观点。当然这就要求我们在事前研究清楚对立的观点是什么,会有哪些存在的证据与事实是可以让我们进行充分辩驳的。我们要向读者表达清楚对立的观点为什么是不正确或者处于弱势的。

  • 语言与文字的运用

在写作论证性论文时,我们需要注意人称与数词的使用。因为辩论性论文或散文是理论性很强的essay,而且在论文中会用到大量已经存在的事实、研究或数据作为理论支撑,那么写作的语言便要十分重要的。我们需要使用第三人称单数,当然对于一些句子也可以使用被动型的句子等。

接下来我们具体来欣赏一篇argumentative essay范文:

以上便是议论文例子的全部内容,其实我们不难看出这是一篇典型的Toulmin格式的argumentative essay。作者首先在引言部分通过类似于提问的方式引出了本文要探讨的话题,而后在正文的第一段(论文的第二段)举例说明了之前存在的一些适应不同文化的方法。紧接着的正文第二段中,作者便提出了自己的观点和论点:适应不同文化的最有效的方式是进行充分地准备,而且解释了理由。在正文的第三段中,作者进行了反驳,反驳了针对这一观点人们可能存在的质疑。通过否定加否定的形式,从另一角度证明了自己观点的正【博士代写】确性。论文的最后一段是总结部分,再次强调了观点并进行最终的总结与概括。

你的议论文题目需要是debatable(值得辩论),以便你可以找到它的论点和反论点。 比如说,“People needs air to breathe;” 的话题并没有什么值得辩论的,但“Students don’t need homework to succeed”可能会奏效。

此外,论文题目应具有说服力,具备有力的证据和至少两种对立的观点,并这种应用有说服力的语言撰写论文,以便读者能看到问题两个方面,并采纳他们最喜欢的立场。

最好选择你感兴趣的主题。调整你的论点并列出你将用支持论据的要点。另外,你还需要列出你论点的反驳观点,并为其收集证据。 在你的论文中,两个不同方面都要描述,但要尝试证明你的论点是唯一正确的。

你的任务不仅是提供有关某件事情的一般信息,而且要激励读者继续对此主题进行讨论。你需要找到一个能够扩大人们视野并允许他们以新的视角看待它的主题。Argumentative essay是关于覆盖硬币(主题)的两个侧面。例如:

? George Clooney is the most handsome actor. (有人会不同意时,你几乎找不到足够可信的证据来证明或反对这一事实)

? Rare animals are in danger today. (这是事实,这里没有什么可以辩论的)

People need marijuana for better health. (你可以找到该主题的论点和反论点)

Positive features of communism.

Why Equal Rights Amendments for women failed. 主要目的并不是说服读者支持你的论点 (though it would be great!), 而是要表明该主题是值得讨论的。

选择debatable议论文题目的窍门如下:

  • 选择你了解并可以对其表达自己意见的主题。
  • 避免难以辩论的话题。
  • 考虑到你的读者:谁能读你的论文?他们会如何看待这个话题?
  • 他们对讨论该主题会感兴趣吗?
  • 确保你有足够的事实和证据来支持该主题的论点和反论点。
  • 避免使用充满感情色彩的主题。 清晰地讨论它们可能很困难。
  • 不怕冒险。尝试讨论其他人会避免的争议性主题。
  • 头脑风暴:你最近遇到了其他人认为忌讳的话题吗?你是否有与任何人讨论过任何争议性的话题? 为什么不可以在论文中涵盖这些主题?

为了使argumentative essay成功,其主题必须是辩论性的,而不是说明性的。 这意味着你不应选择任何常识或过于笼统的论点。考虑一下政治、性别问题、气候变化、教育辩论、文化、动物权利或宗教等领域。

What educational system is better: teacher- or student-centered one?

Pros and cons of classical education in schools.

Do we need sports activities in college or let it be for academic purposes only?

How does gender affect education?

Does homeschooling make children less educative than their peers from traditional schools?

Why U.S. education is weaker than in other countries?

Should students be friends with their professors?

Why students with special needs shouldn’t be taught separately?

Why we still need paper books in the Internet era?

How online money change the way people do business worldwide?

The influence of artificial intelligence creation on evolution.

Do technologies destroy our language and physical communication?

Can we live without smartphones today?

How social media networks become news makers and what the consequences might be?

Should parents control their kids’ use of the Internet?

Is there a risk that robots at work will lead to the enormous jobless rate?

Do elite sportsmen deserve their enormous income?

Why colleges spend so much money on sports programs?

Do sports have any effect on students’ academic level?

Should sports bets be banned from the industry?

Why we continue shaming cheerleaders for what they do?

What to do with a salary gap in male and female sports?

Chess is a real sport to train the most important muscle in the human body.

Why we need to stop using animals in sports?

The biggest challenges for women in the workplace.

Why should men suffer from others’ prejudices about masculinity?

Is legal prostitution a woman’s rights issue?

Why religious institutions believe they have a right for birth control?

What is the biggest challenge for female politicians?

Should abortion be legal?

Why we still consider it’s not okay for men to take maternity leave?

Who said that “a real man” and “a real woman” look like this?

How emotional state depends on our past memories?

Should we believe in precognitive dreams?

Is mid-life crisis real?

Why “just do it” mantra doesn’t work?

How culturally diverse classrooms help broaden our minds?

Why music can be the best medicine from stresses?

That’s how optimism can prevent us from self-growth.

Chocolate as a cure from depression: true or false?

Why stop dressing your pets like humans?

Is it ethical to keep exotic animals at home?

Should we prohibit using animals for entertainment?

Why keeping animals in zoos is inhumane?

What can be an alternative to using animals for medical studies?

What’s so special about pandas, so people consider them #1 species to protect?

Should be people who leave their pets outside or in shelters punished?

Why some fashion brands continue using fur and see nothing wrong with that?

What’s wrong with the idea of free healthcare for everyone?

When it’s okay to perform medical experiments on people?

What can we do to cope with constantly increasing aging population?

Should the whole healthcare system become private?

Is it ethical to forcibly quarantine people who have terminal illnesses?

How the social and economic environment affect people’s health in the 21st century?

Can we call coffee or chocolate addictions a disease?

Is it okay to use medical knowledge that was gained from unethical experiments?

Should we legalize prostitution/drug use?

Is it okay to lie to someone to not hurt their feelings?

Is it right for a college to have racial quotas that benefit minorities?

Why far from all people agree to recognize homosexuality a norm?

Should a person be allowed a gun for defending his home from robbers?

Why it’s okay to eat cows while it’s wrong to eat cats?

Is it ethical for a doctor to say no to a patient unable to pay for surgery?

What was first, a chicken or an egg?

以上便是argumentative essay范文、议论文结构特点及写作技巧,希望大家可以有所借鉴和收获。无论同学选择哪种argumentative essay格式或你的议论文题目是什么, 议论文的目是通过摆事实、讲道理、辨是非提出你个人主张。如果同学还没有完全弄清楚 argumentative essay怎么写或者有任何不明白之处,那么不妨借助论文代写机构的帮助。Academic Saviour是一家专业且值得信赖的留学生paper代写机构,我们专业代写团队立刻为你的要求安排合适的专家。我们保证100%原创,100%高分,100%准时argumentative essay或任何学术论文的写作!更多详细信息,欢迎咨询我们的24/7在线客服!

【作业代写】,Argumentative Essay怎么写? 了解议论文结构和格式类型,查看议论文例子

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